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Voltage is the electric potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit, measured in volts. It represents the work needed to move a unit charge and is crucial for the flow of electric current. Understanding voltage involves exploring its measurement techniques, role in EMF, characteristics in DC and AC systems, and its relationship with current and resistance through Ohm's Law.

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## Definition of Voltage

### Symbol and Concept

Voltage is represented by the symbol V and is a measure of the electric potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit

### Work and Charge Relationship

Equation V = W/Q

The relationship between voltage (V), work (W), and charge (Q) is given by the equation V = W/Q, where voltage is proportional to the work done on the charge and inversely proportional to the amount of charge

### Unit of Measurement

Voltage is measured in volts (V), which is defined as the potential difference that imparts one joule (J) of energy to a single coulomb (C) of charge

## Measurement of Voltage

### Instruments Used

Voltage is measured using a voltmeter or a multimeter set to the voltage measurement mode

### Connection and Impedance

The voltmeter or multimeter must be connected in parallel with the circuit element being measured to ensure minimal impact on current flow

### Importance and Considerations

Accurate voltage measurement is crucial for diagnosing circuit behavior and ensuring proper functioning of electrical components, requiring careful selection of voltage range and observation of polarity

## Electromotive Force (EMF)

### Definition and Relation to Voltage

Electromotive force (EMF) is the energy supplied by a power source per unit charge and is often equated with voltage, but specifically refers to the energy conversion process within the source

### Internal Resistance and Efficiency

The EMF must overcome internal resistance within the source to maintain current flow and is a key factor in determining the efficiency and power output of electrical sources

## Types of Voltage

### Direct Current (DC)

DC voltage is constant and unidirectional, making it ideal for electronic devices that require stable voltage levels

### Alternating Current (AC)

AC voltage varies periodically with time, typically in a sinusoidal manner, allowing for efficient power transmission and use of transformers

### Ohm's Law and Relationship to Voltage

Ohm's Law, which states that voltage is directly proportional to current and inversely proportional to resistance, is fundamental in understanding the effects of voltage on current flow and resistance in electrical circuits

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