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The Qing Dynasty: Last Imperial Dynasty of China

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The Qing Dynasty, China's last imperial era, saw significant territorial expansion, cultural developments, and economic growth. It reinforced Confucianism as the state ideology and undertook the Ten Great Campaigns to establish dominance in Central Asia. Despite cultural and economic advancements, the Qing faced decline due to military defeats and internal rebellions, culminating in the Xinhai Revolution and the dynasty's fall, which shaped modern China's boundaries and legacy.

Establishment and Expansion of the Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty, founded by the Manchus in 1644 after they overthrew the Ming Dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, lasting until 1912. The Manchus, originating from northeast Asia, conquered Beijing and established a new regime, while retaining many Ming bureaucrats to facilitate a stable transition. The Qing consolidated their rule through military campaigns against Ming loyalists and various regional uprisings. The dynasty's territorial expansion was marked by the Ten Great Campaigns, which included the subjugation of the Dzungar Khanate in Xinjiang, securing China's northern and western frontiers, and the military campaigns against the Gyalrong Tibetans in Sichuan.

Religious and Cultural Developments Under Qing Rule

The Qing Dynasty saw the reinforcement of Confucianism as the state ideology, emphasizing filial piety, hierarchical social structures, and the civil service examination system. The Manchus, while initially practicing shamanism, adopted Confucian rituals to legitimize their rule over the Han Chinese majority. Confucianism influenced governance, education, and society, with emperors performing ritual sacrifices and promoting Confucian learning. Buddhism and Daoism continued to be practiced, with the Qing emperors often patronizing Tibetan Buddhism. The period also witnessed cultural achievements such as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary and the monumental Siku Quanshu, reflecting the dynasty's commitment to preserving and promoting Chinese scholarship.

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Qing Dynasty's founding year and the dynasty it succeeded

Founded in 1644, succeeded the Ming Dynasty

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Qing Dynasty's method for stabilizing rule post-conquest

Retained Ming bureaucrats, suppressed uprisings, military campaigns

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Significance of the Ten Great Campaigns

Expanded territory, subdued Dzungar Khanate, secured frontiers

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