Feedback

What do you think about us?

Your name

Your email

Message

Understanding observed and critical values is crucial in statistical analysis for hypothesis testing. Observed values are actual measurements from a study, used to test hypotheses with statistical tests like the t-test and chi-squared test. Critical values, derived from probability distributions, serve as benchmarks to assess statistical significance and help researchers decide whether to accept or reject hypotheses based on the comparison of observed to critical values.

Show More

## Observed Values

### Definition

Observed values are the actual measurements or outcomes obtained from a study, used in statistical analysis to test hypotheses

### Statistical Tests

Types of Tests

Statistical tests such as the chi-squared test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient test are used to calculate observed values

Calculation of Observed Values

Each statistical test calculates an observed value that reflects the strength or magnitude of the relationship or difference being investigated

### Significance

Observed values are compared to critical values to determine if the results are statistically significant

## Critical Values

### Definition

Critical values are benchmarks used to determine the significance of observed values in statistical analysis

### Factors Affecting Critical Values

Significance Level

The chosen significance level (alpha) influences the critical value, with a commonly used level of 0.05 indicating a 5% risk of Type I error

One-tailed vs. Two-tailed Tests

The type of test being conducted (one-tailed or two-tailed) also affects the critical value

### Criteria for Statistical Significance

The criteria for determining statistical significance vary among different tests, with each test having its own specific criteria

## Critical Values Tables

### Definition

Critical values tables provide benchmarks for comparing observed values and determining statistical significance

### Purpose

Critical values tables are essential for researchers to determine the significance of their observed values

### Factors Affecting Critical Values Tables

Degrees of Freedom

The degrees of freedom (df) or sample size (N) used in the statistical test affect the critical values listed in the table

Type of Test and Significance Level

Researchers must select the correct table for their test and choose the appropriate significance level to find the critical value for comparison with their observed value

Algorino

Edit available